Top 10 Unusual Volcanic Craters

Craters of extinct and passive volcanoes are circular depressions in the ground caused by ancient volcanic activities. It is typically a basin, circular in form within which occurs a vent (or vents). Because of their inaction these craters are mostly suffered many changes caused by atmospheric and human factors. Unusual and beautiful volcanic cones, traces of human activity, lush vegetation and colorful crater lakes are the main reasons why many tourists visit these extraordinary destinations.

1. Diamond Head, Hawaii, USA

Diamond Head is the name of a volcanic tuff cone on the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu. Its name was given by British sailors in the 19th century, who mistook calcite crystals embedded in the rock for diamonds. This crater is a defining feature of the view known to residents and tourists of Waikiki alike.

The volcanic tuff cone is a United States State Monument. While part of it serves as a platform for antennas used by the U.S. government and is closed to the public, the crater's proximity to Honolulu's resort hotels and beaches makes the rest of it a popular destination.

The interior was the home to Fort Ruger, the first United States military reservation on Hawaii. Only a National Guard facility remains in the crater. An FAA air traffic control center was in operation from 1963 to 2001.

2. Kelimutu, Indonesia

Kelimutu is a volcano, close to the small town of Moni in central Flores Island of Indonesia. The volcano contains three striking summit crater lakes of varying colors. Tiwu Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is usually blue and is the westernmost of the three lakes.

The other two lakes, Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo ( Enchanted Lake) are separated by a shared crater wall and are typically green or red respectively. The lake colors vary on a periodic basis. Subaqueous fumaroles are the probable cause of active upwelling that occurs at the two eastern lakes.

The visitor is never quite sure what color the lakes will be when they reach the top as they vary significantly. Unlike other crater lakes where the color variation can be predicted, this is not the case with these three lakes. The colors you see here are blue, green and black (and they predominate) yet the lakes also change to white, red and blue too.

3. Crater in Rocas Bainbridge,Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

This wonderful islet is located in Rocas Bainbridge - a chain of volcanic cones off the southeastern coast of Santiago Island, Galapagos.

Turquoise lake nestled in the crater of this extinct volcano is a shallow saltwater lake. It is a meeting place for a large number of flamingos, who come here to feed.

4. Xico, Mexico

Xico volcano sits at the extreme southern end of the Mexico City megalopolis. For a geologically significant chunk of time, this area was underwater, drowned by Lake Chalco. The lake began to dry out in the 1300s, and Aztec fishermen settled along its coastline hereabouts. In the nineteenth century, the government drained the lake entirely; the fishermen were awarded communal land grants and told to become farmers.

Farming became intensive in the 1970s, when corporate agriculturists and desperate landless peasants struck illegal or quasi-legal deals with the communal organizations and wrested control of the rich volcanic soil. Thousands and thousands of families poured into the region, hoping for work. Farmers climbed over the rim of the volcano and plowed fields inside the crater. Xico the town sprawled right up to the ramparts of Xico the crater and appears likely to soon engulf it; in 2005, the population of the municipality was 330,000.

5. Molokini, Hawaii, USA

Molokini is a crescent-shaped, partially submerged volcanic crater which forms a small islet located in Alalakeiki Channel between the islands of Maui and Kahoʻolawe, part of Maui County in Hawaiʻi. It has an area of 23 acres (93,169 sq m), a diameter of about 0.4 miles (0.6 km), and is located about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) west of Makena State Park and south of Maʻalaea Bay. It is a popular tourist destination for scuba diving, snuba and snorkeling.

This place is one of the top 10 dive spots in the world. Molokini's crescent shape protects divers from waves and the channel's powerful currents. The crater houses a lush reef with excellent visibility as deep as 150 feet (46 m). Molokini is home to about 250 species of fish, many endemic. The islet is a Hawaiʻi State Seabird Sanctuary.

6. Seongsan Ilchulbong, South Korea

Seongsan Ilchulbong, also called ‘Sunrise Peak’, is an archetypal tuff cone formed by hydrovolcanic eruptions upon a shallow seabed about 4 thousand years ago.

Situated on the eastern seaboard of Jeju Island and said to resemble a gigantic ancient castle, this tuff cone is 182 meters (600 ft) high, has a preserved bowl-like crater and also displays diverse inner structures resulting from the sea cliff.

These features are considered to be of geologic worth, providing information on eruptive and depositional processes of hydromagmatic volcanoes worldwide as well as past volcanic activity of Seongsan Ilchulbong itself. This volcanic crater has a lush vegetation and is home to 6 rare plant species.

7. Nabiyotum Crater, Kenya

Nabiyotum Crater is located in the south of Lake Turkana in Kenya - the world's largest alkaline lake. Because of its beautiful and unusual appearance, this crater represents a geological wonder of the lake.

8. Aogashima, Japan

Aogashima is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tokyo and located approximately 358 kilometres (222 mi) south of Tokyo. It is the southernmost and most isolated inhabited island of the Izu archipelago.

The biggest attraction is Aogashima’s double volcano. The island itself is a giant volcanic crater, and within that crater there’s another, smaller volcano.

The smaller cone is located within the larger volcanic cone

Aogashima is a complex volcanic island 3.5 km (2.2 mi) in length with a maximum width of 2.5 km (1.55 mi). The island is surrounded by very steep rugged cliffs of layered volcanic deposits. The southern coast also rises to a sharp ridge forming one edge of a caldera named Ikenosawa with a diameter of 1.5 km (0.9 mi). The caldera dominates the island, with one point on its southern ridge, Otonbu with a height of 423 metres (1,388 ft), as the island’s highest point. The caldera is occupied by a secondary cone named Maruyama.

One part of the village is located in the crater

The village of Aogashima administers the island under Hachijō Subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis. As of 2009, the island's population was 205. Aogashima is also within the boundaries of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.

9. Santa Margarida Volcano, Spain

The Santa Margarida Volcano is a volcano in the comarca of Garrotxa, Catalonia, Spain. The volcano has a perimeter of 2 kilometers (1.25 mi) and a height of 682 meters (2.240 ft) and is part of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone Natural Park. The hermitage of Santa Margarida, after which the volcano was named, is inside the crater of the volcano. The building was destroyed in 1428 during the 1428 Catalonia earthquake and rebuilt in 1865.

Situated in the center of a dormant volcano in Catalonia, the crater seems to open up to reveal a tiny stone shack. There is not a single building in the depressed area, just the hermitage. Covered in dense vegetation on all sides, the shack is bizarrely situated on flat arid land in the middle of the formation.

The region is well known for its volcanic zone and is regularly visited, but there is almost no information on the hermitage. Travelers can only hope the volcano doesn't suddenly erupt, leaving the world with no knowledge and no remains of this unusual site.

10. Koko Crater, Hawaii, USA

Koko Crater is a massive cinder cone that visually dominates the area of Koko Head - the headland that defines the eastern side of Maunalua Bay along the southeastern side of the Island of Oʻahu in Hawaiʻi.

Within the crater are horse stables and the Koko Crater Botanical Garden specializing in cacti and succulents. Botanical garden has an area of 60 acres. The hot, dry climate here makes this garden the ideal location for the dryland collections of the Honolulu Botanical Gardens.

Bonus: Man-Made Crater as an Expression of Art, Ireland

Liss Ard Gardens Resort (southern Ireland) includes a magnificent 'Crater' - designed by James Turrell, the extraordinary American artist who is world-renowned for his works on the theme of 'Light', and the Swiss architect Gert Burla. The Crater was created for the Irish skies to be appreciated by the spectators lying on the stone structures at the bottom - the dome-effect that is created in the elliptical frame is truly an unforgettable experience.


Earth at Night

On December 5th, 2010 scientists unveiled an unprecedented new look at our planet at night. A global composite image, constructed using cloud-free night images from a new NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite, shows the glow of natural and human-built phenomena across the planet in greater detail than ever before.

Many satellites are equipped to look at Earth during the day, when they can observe our planet fully illuminated by the sun. With a new sensor aboard the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched last year, scientists now can observe Earth’s atmosphere and surface during nighttime hours.

The new sensor, the day-night band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), is sensitive enough to detect the nocturnal glow produced by Earth’s atmosphere and the light from a single ship in the sea. Satellites in the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program have been making observations with low-light sensors for 40 years. But the VIIRS day-night band can better detect and resolve Earth’s night lights.

The new, higher resolution composite image of Earth at night was released at a news conference at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco. This and other VIIRS day-night band images are providing researchers with valuable data for a wide variety of previously unseen or poorly seen events.

Check out the amazing gallery below of the ‘Black Marble’ our beautiful planet at night.

1. The Black Marble – Americas

This image of North and South America at night is a composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi NPP satellite in April and October 2012. The new data was mapped over existing Blue Marble imagery of Earth to provide a realistic view of the planet.

The nighttime view was made possible by the new satellite’s “day-night band” of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. VIIRS detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe dim signals such as city lights, gas flares, auroras, wildfires, and reflected moonlight. In this case, auroras, fires, and other stray light have been removed to emphasize the city lights.

“Artificial lighting is a excellent remote sensing observable and proxy for human activity,” says Chris Elvidge, who leads the Earth Observation Group at NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center. Social scientists and demographers have used night lights to model the spatial distribution of economic activity, of constructed surfaces, and of populations. Planners and environmental groups have used maps of lights to select sites for astronomical observatories and to monitor human development around parks and wildlife refuges. Electric power companies, emergency managers, and news media turn to night lights to observe blackouts.

Named for satellite meteorology pioneer Verner Suomi, NPP flies over any given point on Earth’s surface twice each day at roughly 1:30 a.m. and p.m. The polar-orbiting satellite flies 824 kilometers (512 miles) above the surface, sending its data once per orbit to a ground station in Svalbard, Norway, and continuously to local direct broadcast users distributed around the world. The mission is managed by NASA with operational support from NOAA and its Joint Polar Satellite System, which manages the satellite’s ground system.

2. City Lights of the United States – 2012

“Nighttime light is the most interesting data that I’ve had a chance to work with,” says Chris Elvidge, who leads the Earth Observation Group at NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center. “I’m always amazed at what city light images show us about human activity.” His research group has been approached by scientists seeking to model the distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and to monitor the activity of commercial fishing fleets. Biologists have examined how urban growth has fragmented animal habitat. Elvidge even learned once of a study of dictatorships in various parts of the world and how nighttime lights had a tendency to expand in the dictator’s hometown or province.

3. Black Marble – Africa, Europe, and the Middle East

This new image of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East at night is a composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi NPP satellite in April and October 2012. The new data was mapped over existing Blue Marble imagery of Earth to provide a realistic view of the planet.

“Night time imagery provides an intuitively graspable view of our planet,” says William Stefanov, senior remote sensing scientist for the International Space Station program office. “They provide a fairly straightforward means to map urban versus rural areas, and to show where the major population centers are and where they are not.”

4. Black Marble – Asia and Australia

“Night time imagery provides an intuitively graspable view of our planet,” says William Stefanov, a scientist in NASA’s International Space Station program office who has worked with similar images from astronauts. “City lights are an excellent means to track urban and suburban growth, which feeds into planning for energy use and urban hazards, for studying urban heat islands, and for initializing climate models.”

5. Black Marble – City Lights 2012

The night side of Earth twinkles with light, and the first thing to stand out is the cities. “Nothing tells us more about the spread of humans across the Earth than city lights,” asserts Chris Elvidge, a NOAA scientist who has studied them for 20 years.

6. City Lights 2012 – Flat Map

This new image of the Earth at night is a composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite over nine days in April 2012 and thirteen days in October 2012. It took 312 orbits and 2.5 terabytes of data to get a clear shot of every parcel of Earth’s land surface and islands.


Beautiful Bali: The Island Paradise Of 1,000 Temples

Beautiful Bali has been called the famed island of the Gods. With its varied landscape of sandy beaches, hills and mountains, rugged coastlines and cliffs, gorgeous waterfalls, as well as lush rice terraces and barren volcanic hillsides, some people claim that Bali is a paradise on earth. But Bali also has a colorful and deeply spiritual culture, which is why it is known as the “island of a thousand temples.” There are sea temples, directional temples and so many others so that 1,000 is an understatement. In fact, everywhere you go, you see a temple. “There are so many temples that the Government does not bother to count them.” There are also monkeys guarding the temples, monkeys in the rain forest, and even bats in a cave temple. Here’s a look at the sea temples, some wonderfully cute wildlife like monkeys, and some other stunning temples on the paradise on earth known as beautiful Bali

After being inspired by a gorgeous photo of Tanah Lot, a sea temple in Bali, we looked up more information. There are seven sea temples, but in trying to find them all, we kept bumping into images of directional temples. Then even more temples, until we found out that beautiful Bali is known as the “island of a thousand temples.” According to the CIA World Fact Book, Indonesia is “slightly less than three times the size of Texas.” Bali is the largest tourist destination in the whole country . . . and everywhere you go there is a temple. “A Bali sunset and Tanah Lot Temple,” one of seven sea temples.

Uluwatu Temple is situated at an altitude of 1997 meters (6551.8 feet) above sea level. It is also a sea temple. In front of the temple there is a small forest called kekeran base, serves as a support of the sanctity of the temple. Each of the seven Balinese sea temples are said to be visible from the next, forming a ‘chain’ around the coast of Bali. Many of the most important sea temples are along the south-west coast of the island.

“While in Bali, why not visit a temple? They have lots. This is a temple for the sea goddess,” wrote the photographer. “The lake in which it stands is a volcanic lake filling the crater of a monster volcano. Bali has several active volcanoes. The last eruption took place in 1996 when Gunung Agung exploded killing some 2000+ The Balinese blamed it on their priests. Apparently they had gotten the date for an important cleansing ritual wrong by about a decade.”

Bali, the famed Island of the Gods, with landscapes of lush rice terraces, volcanic hillsides, mountains, rugged cliffs, sandy beaches and wonderful waves for surfing. That is what people might think of for a vacation to Bali. But even from this sweet infinity pool at the Boutique Hotel Ubud Hanging Gardens, there is a temple in the background. In fact, after looking around a bit, there is little wonder why Bali is also called the “island of a thousand temples.”

Mystical setting at Ulun Danu Temple complex. Ulun means heart, Danu means lake. This Temple is dedicated to the Goddess of The lake. This lake supplies water to the rice field.

According to the photographer, This is “the mother temple or Pura Besakih on the slopes of Volcanic mountain “Mount Agung” in eastern Bali. The largest and Holiest temple of Bali. This temple is made up of twenty-two shrines sitting on parallel ridges.”

“Bali Tanah Lot. Taken at arround 19.00, long exposure 30 seconds. No, that’s not a dead pixel, but they’re some stars ,” wrote the photographer. This is one of the hotspots for tourists and photographers from all across the globe.

Temple Pulaki at Pulaki, another one of the seven sea temples at Bali. In explaining why Bali is the island of a thousand temples, it was said that a mere thousand is a tremendous understatement. “It is not surprising that Bali is called the island of the thousand temples. Everywhere you see a temple. There are so many temples that the Government does not bother to count them. There are small temples, very small temples with only a very few shrines; there are large temples, very large temples with more than 50 shrines, such as the Temple of Besakih, the mother temple of Bali.”

Pura Gere Perancak, stone crocodiles at another one of seven Balinese sea temples. Pura is another name for temple. More explaining Balinese temples: Bali. “There are even lonely shrines on the oddest places where one does not expect them at all. Every family, every compound, every clan or society has a temple; you mention a society or organization and has a temple. In the compound where the family lives there is the family temple. The desa, village itself must have at least three temples.”

Monkey at Uluwatu Temple. Monkeys are at temples and in the jungle.

Majestic cliff and Uluwatu, one of seven sea temples. Each “clan has its own temple. Subak or irrigation organization has a temple, called Pura Subak or Pura Bedugul. Every place where the water to irrigate the rice field is divided has a temple or at least a shrine. Bali has a whole has a temple, the pura Besakih or the mother temple, where every sect and nobility have their own temple. The balinese are worshippers of ancestors. The family does this in the family temple or house temple.”

The name Rambut Siwi is closely related to the holy journey of Hindu prophet Danghyang Nirartha in the sixteenth century. It one of seven sea temples in Bali. Rambut Siwi is situated on a cliff with a breathtaking view of rice fields on one side and the black sand beaches on the other side, with the island of Java in the distant background. Visitors can see traditional salt making facilities not far from the shrine at Pura Rambut Siwi. “At This site Niratha is said to have made a gift of a lock of his hair, which was worshiped. Rambut Siwi translates as ‘worship of the hair’ and the tale is reminiscent of the Buddhist story of Gautama giving eight hairs to Tapussa and Bhallika, which are now enshrined at Shwedagon.”

Pura Sakenan, on a Serangan Island, a small island in Bali located between Benoa and Sanur. This is how the temple appeared 100 years ago, as this photo was taken between 1910-1920.

The Pulaki temple from Photo #8 is also referred to as Monkey Temple. This image might help to explain why. “The monkeys are free and taken care of by monks, but tourists can come in the temple and play with them if you offer them peanuts or bananas. They are very friendly but still wild so be careful to respect them. The temple is gorgeous and very traditional, located right on the shore in front of the sea, and will give you unforgettable memories, especially if you are lucky enough to catch a traditional Hindu ceremony while you are there.”

Bathing in the healing waters of Tirta Empul temple, considered “one of the six most important temples in Bali.” It is not, however, a sea temple. Pura Tirta Empul dates back to 926 AD. Visitors are allowed to take a bath in the pond and the unstoppable water flow is believed to be able to cure any kinds of diseases. The photographer called this “Taste the holiness.”

Elephant Cave, Ubud, Bali Indonesia.

Monkeys in nature, in the jungle and guarding the Balinese temples

“Taman Ayun literally translated means beautiful garden, and this temple, situated in the village of Mengwi, 18 km west of Denpasar, is indeed one of Bali’s most picturesque temples. Its stately proportioned courtyards and large surrounding moat were built in the year 1634 by the King of Mengwi, I Gusti Agung Anom.”

Perancak is where Nirartha landed in Bali in 1546. Photo #9 showed the limestone crocodiles of Pura Gede Perancak temple, but here are dragons in the same temple, one of the seven sea temples. According to WhyGo, “This is an important temple for Balinese people. The temple was built in the 16th Century by a Javanese priest named Nirartha. During the Galungan festival, particularly the closing day of Kuningan, the temple is very busy. Pura Sakenan is a public temple, meaning Balinese people from all over the island can come and receive blessings.”

Rice terrace in Bali near temple. The tremendous terraced rice fields are famous.

Pathway to Small Island Floating on the Sea. The photographer wrote, “The word of Tanah Lot is consisted of two words that are Tanah word interpreted as a reef looking like gili or isle. Lot or Lod word has meaning the sea. So Tanah Lot is meaning the small island floating on the sea. The location is now called as Tanah Lot has been used at a Megalithic period as a place that looked into holy, proven from the existence of menhir. Pursuant to environmental condition, hence the structure of Tanah Lot Temple is built at irregular reef plain of its angle which is only consisted of one plain yard as Jeroan.”

The day ends at Tanah Lot Temple. Simply stunning sunset.

Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, a Hindu temple in Bali, Indonesia. It is part of the temple complex, at the edge of Lake Bratan in the mountains near Bedugul. Wikipedia states, “Water temples serve the entire region in the outflow area; downstream there are many smaller water temples that are specific to each irrigation association. Built in 1663, this temple is used for offerings ceremony to the Balinese water, lake and river goddess Dewi Danu, due to the importance of Lake Bratan as a main source of irrigation in central Bali. The 11 stories of pelinggih meru dedicated for Shiva and his consort Parvathi. Buddha statue also present inside this temple. Lake Bratan is known as the Lake of Holy Mountain due to the fertility of this area. Located 1200 m above sea level, it has a cold tropical climate.”

The tide is high at Pura Tanah Lot.

Atmosphere of the Past. Traditional Farmer near Rambut Siwi. The photographer added, “The above atmosphere are rarely found in fields now. Today they are surrounded by mostly residential, and residential villas. The use of tractors, etc also farmers’ associations get diminishing. In the past all are friends with nature, fresh air, natural aura filled with peace.”

Rice terrace located near a temple.

“Spiritual Journey to Pemuteran Pulaki Temple,” one of the seven sea temples.

“The sacred hot springs ‘Air Panas’ of Banjar are set in the midst of the jungle in a beautifully landscaped tropical garden, close to Lovina Beach, and it consist of three public and one private pool,” wrote the photographer. “The sulphuric water is of volcanic origin and has an agreeable warm temperature of 37 degrees Celcius, ideal for people suffering from rheumatic diseases. The hot spring water gushes from the mouths of eight stone carved naga (mythical, dragon-like creatures) into the oblong shaped upper pool.”

The Sea Temple of Pura Luhur at Uluwatu in south Bali is perched on very impressive cliffs. Built in the 11th century, it is also one of nine directional temples meant to protect Bali from evil spirits.

Bali Tanah lot Sunset, perhaps the prettiest of the sea temples.

Cave of the ‘Holy Snake’. The photographer wrote, “Tanah Lot Puri – Puri meaning Temple in Balinese is one of Balis most sacred Sea Temples dedicated to the Hindu guardian spirits of the sea. It is said to be protected from evil spirits by the sea snakes that ‘apparently’ inhabit the caves surrounding.”

Thousands of Fruit Bats pile onto each other on the cliffs and caves overlooking Tanah Lot Temple in Canggu, Bali, Indonesia. In fact, there are so many bats that you might think this is a bat cave . . .

But this is the bat cave at the ancient Bat Temple, also known as Pura Goa Lawah. According to the photographer, Goa Lawah Temple “is one in six representative temples in Bali. This temple is famous as ‘Bat’s cave temple’. It is a very old temple said that Saint Mpu Kuturan built in 1007. This photo was taken circa 1930. Several thousand bats are flying about in the cave. There is a legend that this cave continues to Pura Besakih.

Barong Dance at Goa Lawah aka the Bat Temple.

Huge stone elephant at entrance of Goa Lawa.

Natural bridge to sea temple at Tanah Lot.

Pura Tanah Lot is probably one of the most spectacular temples, sitting atop the majestic cliffs overlooking the surf at Uluwatu. Luhur means “something of divine origin” and “Uluwatu” can be broken into “ulu” which means “land’s end” and “watu” means “rock.”

Ramayana Dance & The Circle of Fire. One photographer explained that “the highlight of the kecak performance at Uluwatu is when Hanuman, the white monkey, is blessed by a real priest while he resides in the magical circle of fire.”

The Sacred Monkeys guarding Uluwatu Temple. One of the photographers noted, “We were warned numerous times as we arrived that the monkeys here were quite aggressive, moreso than the guys at Ubud’s Monkey Forest. These ones will pull the glasses right off your face if you’re not careful! To be honest, though, they’re really just interested in anything that might be tasty and if you exercise a bit of common sense they won’t bother with you.”

Gitgit Waterfall, Lovina, Bali, is the highest waterfall in Bali with a height of about 35 meters. Unsurprisingly, there is also a temple at Gitgit.

Frozen Dragon Stare: “These are statues of the Komodo Dragons looking at a river in the Monkey Forest in Ubud, Bali,” wrote the photographer.

Right: Sangeh Bali Monkey Forest. Left: Monkey in Monkey Forest perched on a demon. “Nice Meal, But For Who?” asked the photographer.

Balinese temples, Dalem Agung Padantegal Temple in Monkey Forest, Ubud, Bali, Indonesia.

Right: Hindu Cremation in Ubud. Left: Naga Bandha, Royal Cremation Peliatan, Ubud, Bali.

Legend tells that the God Indra once tapped the springs during his battle with evil Mayadanawa. Following Mayadanawa’s wicked deed of poisoning nearby river and making hundreds of Indra’s retailers sick, the god created a spring of pure and sacred water to sure them. Tirta Empul temple was built around the springs and special bathing pools.

Mystic Bali. “Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, and today is a gift.”